Explore further The new system is more complex than a chain and gears and consists of a rope and pulley on each side of the bike. The rotation of the pedals forces arms at each side to swing forward and backward on its shaft. When moving forward, the arm pulls the driving wire that is wound around a drum on the rear wheel, forcing the wheel to rotate. The arms at each side alternate so that when one is moving forward the other is moving backward. The new system has 19 “gear” positions and the transmission ratio can be changed at any time by turning a shifting knob on the right handle grip. This moves the pulley shafts up and down along a traction path on an eccentric disc, which has 19 notches to adjust the height of the pulleys and distance between the center of rotation and the shaft. The gears can be changed even if the bicycle is stationary, but gear change speed increases with the speed of the bicycle. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The traditional bicycle has a chain and gears on one side, which the designers from bicycle manufacturer Schwinn Csepel Zrt say has led to a lot of problems, although they do not say exactly what those problems are. They say most are unnoticeable problems until you’ve actually ridden a symmetrical system. One problem that the new design does remove is soiling clothes with the grease or oil on the chain, since the pulley system is dry. Citation: Introducing Stringbike: the bike with no chain (w/ Video) (2010, September 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-09-stringbike-bike-chain-video.html Another advantage of the system is that the ropes can be attached in different positions on the two sides of the bicycle, which means it can compensate if one of the rider’s legs is weaker than the other. The designers also say the lifetime of components will be longer than for conventional bicycles because chains are more susceptible to wear and abrasion, and the number of components is reduced. (PhysOrg.com) — Hungarian bicycle designers have unveiled their new Stringbike in Padova, Italy. The design replaces the traditional chain with a symmetrical rope and pulley system, which they say is more efficient, makes for a more comfortable ride, and provides improved maneuverability around winding streets. The drive system will be able to be replaced with different size parts and different shaped eccentric discs for specialized purposes such as racing or touring. The rear wheel can be removed in only a few seconds without affecting the drive system. The driving rope is a special high density polyethylene (HDPE) product with high stability over extended periods, and which is resistant to mud, water, dirt, sand, and humidity. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: www.stringbike.com/ Gyrowheel to keep new bike riders upright (w/ Video)
Citation: Newly identified self-cloning lizard found in Vietnam (2010, November 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-11-newly-self-cloning-lizard-vietnam.html (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists have just discovered that a small lizard, long known as a restaurant food item in southeastern Vietnam, is an all-female species that reproduces through “cloning” itself. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Image credit: L. Lee Grismer. Scientists discover four new gecko species This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The lizard, Leiolepis ngovantrii, was found by Ngo Van Tri from the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology and classified by L. Lee Grismer, a herpetologist from La Sierra University in Riverside, California. The species was previously unknown to science, even though it has been eaten in the Mekong Delta region as long as anyone can remember.Ngo first found the lizard at a restaurant in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, where live specimens were being kept in a tank. Ngo noticed all the individuals looked identical, and sent photographs to his colleague Grismer and his PhD student son Jesse. The Grismers identified the lizard as probably belonging to the Leiolepis genus, but in this genus males and females have different coloration, and the photographs showed only males. This made them suspect the new species consisted only of females.The Grismers flew to Ho Chi Minh City and telephoned the restaurant to ask them to keep the lizards alive until they could get there eight hours later. By the time they arrived the “crazy guy” restaurant owner had got drunk and sold them all, but the scientists found more specimens at other restaurants, and were aided by local school children to find more in the wild. They found nearly 70 of the lizards altogether, and all were females.The findings, published in the journal ZOOTAXA, also identified unique rows of enlarged scales on its forelimbs and bone layers (lamellae) under their toes. Grismer said the species, which lives in a transition zone between coastal sand dunes and scrub, may be a hybrid of two related species of maternal and paternal lizards that thrive in the separate habitats.Genetic testing of mitochondrial DNA has identified the maternal species as L. guttata, but the paternal species is not yet known. (Mitochondrial DNA is passed down only through females.)The newly described species is not the only one that reproduces through cloning, since around one percent of lizard species reproduce with no contribution from males, by a process known as parthenogenesis (from the Greek for virgin birth). In this process the ovum contains a full complement of chromosomes and develops into an embryo without being fertilized. Parthenogenesis also occurs, but rarely, in fish and invertebrates, especially insects such as aphids, and has been artificially induced in mice and other species.The Leiolepis ngovantrii species is not rare in the area in which it was found, but some herpetologists such as Charles Cole of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, think as a hybrid species it may be more prone to extinction because of the reduced genetic variation from one generation to the next. Cole said unisexual species do not generally survive as long as other species of lizards, but they can be healthier in the short term. More information: ZOOTAXA paper (PDF): www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/z02433p061f.pdf Explore further
Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Solar panels released in an array of colors (2011, June 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-solar-panels-array.html One Canadian-based solar technology company is looking to change that view. Qsolar has announced the creation of the Kristal and Kristal Rainbow range of semi-transparent and colored semi-transparent solar panels. These lines come in a variety of colors, including red, green, brown and blue as well as in a few different patterns. The panels do not have frames attached to them, because the panels are rigid.At first, this may seem like it is simply a vanity, putting a new skin on a green technology, but these semi-transparent have a chance to go places that standard solar panels are simply not used, making them an option for buildings that do not have the space to support a standard solar panel set up. Some potential places these new panels could be installed include windows and the glass spaces of atrium roofs. This makes them optimal for building with limited roof space, due to either building design issues or the fact that other equipment has previously been placed on the roof. The panels are already available for purchase by the public. Information on pricing is on a case-by-case basis, and interested consumers should contact the company to find out what the system would cost to be installed in their building. Willis Tower goes solar (PhysOrg.com) — Solar panels are, for the most part, large black panels, made of squares, but what if it does not have to be that way. What if users could get all of the benefits of solar panels without making their roofs look like the side of a Manhattan skyscraper? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: Hierarchical multiscale structure– property relationships of the Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) beak. N. Lee et al. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2014. rsif.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rsif.2014.0274 (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at Mississippi State University has found that the beaks of woodpeckers are constructed in such a way as to help dissipate energy. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team describes their work in analyzing the beaks of several red-bellied woodpeckers and how they found that it has three layers that all help to absorb shocks as the bird pecks away at trees looking for insects inside. Most everyone knows that woodpeckers bang away at trees (or sometimes other structures) with their beaks to create holes that allow them access to insects hidden inside. Prior research has shown that woodpeckers have a variety of features throughout their heads that help absorb shock, preventing the birds from suffering brain or other damage as they hunt for their prey. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn if there was anything special about their beaks that might also help soften the internal blow as the birds hammer away at a tree, between one and three hundred times a minute.Close inspection revealed that the beak’s outer or rhamphotheca layer was made of a keratin sheath, which was, like most birds, arranged in a scale pattern, with defined edges between each scale. There was one major difference however, the scale edges, which are not straight but follow a zig-zag course (and have been nick-named sutures because they resemble those used in surgery), were much more wiggly than other pecking birds, such as chickens. This, the researchers noted, would help deflect compressing forces as the beak hit the wood. They found that the scales were also thinner and more elongated than other pecking birds as well, which appears to allow for more sliding of scales over one another during pecking, serving as a shock-absorber.The researchers also found that the middle “foam” layer of the bird’s beak, was more porous than other pecking birds, which would of course allow for directing the energy from impacts into other parts of the birds head that are better able to handle the abuse.Taken as a whole, it appears a woodpecker’s beak offers a first line of defense against head damage when pecking, dissipating energy where possible and directing the rest to where it will do the least damage. © 2014 Phys.org Journal information: Journal of the Royal Society Interface A male Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus). Credit: Ken Thomas/public domain Explore further Mechanical properties and microstructure of cranial and beak bones of the woodpecker and the lark Citation: Study reveals shock-absorbing ability of woodpecker beaks (2014, May 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-reveals-shock-absorbing-ability-woodpecker-beaks.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
It’s been a pretty busy week for technology development also: A Dutch company launched new-generation urban wind turbines—they’re a lot quieter than conventional turbines and take up much less space. And, a team at MIT has announced a new breed of solar cells: Quantum-dot photovoltaics set a new record for efficiency in such devices—another step toward a new generation of cells that last a lot longer and can be manufactured under ordinary temperatures.In the biological sciences, a study shows environmental influences may cause autism in some cases—a finding that could help explain why it is that babies born to older mothers have an increased risk of developing the disorder. Another team is reporting a breakthrough that shows how DNA is ‘edited’ to correct genetic diseases. It’s a step forward in understanding how enzymes impact genes to prevent genetic diseases, and maybe leading to a way to improve the process.In otherworldly news, a pair of researchers suggest black holes at center of galaxies might instead be wormholes. It may sound a bit far-fetched, but a new addition to a telescope in Chili could prove them right or wrong, in just a couple of years. Also, researchers working with NASA’s Swift satellite report a cosmic explosion spotted in neighboring galaxy. They’re not sure what happened, but suspect it was two neutrons stars colliding.And finally, food for thought: Does porn affect the brain? Scientists urge more study. Preliminary research indicates heavy users have less grey matter. But was porn the cause, or was it a condition that led to the behavior? More research will have to be done to find out. In the meantime, the team at Max Planck Institute isn’t making any recommendations. Artistic impression of quantum teleportation of a spin state between two distant diamonds. Research team claims to have accurately ‘teleported’ quantum information ten feet Explore further © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —It’s been a remarkable week for physics work—first a research team claims to have accurately ‘teleported’ quantum information ten feet, and report that they did so with 100 percent accuracy. If the claims turn out to be true, this could mark the beginning of real-world quantum computers or networks. Equally exciting, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s have found that combining lasers could shrink particle accelerators from kilometers to meters. Imagine the cost savings—such a development would allow more scientists access to such research, perhaps opening the door to a flood of new discoveries. And imagine also, a space-based experiment that could test gravity’s effects on quantum entanglement—and in so doing, make inroads toward creating a unifying theory between the theory of relativity and quantum theory. Citation: Best of Last Week – quantum information accurately transfered, better wind turbines and study of porn’s impact on brain (2014, June 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-06-week-quantum-accurately-turbines-porn.html
(Phys.org) —A team of engineering and physics researchers with members from the U.S., the U.K. and the Republic of Muldova has found that covering a common type of plastic with a graphene coating can increase its conductivity by up to 600 times. In their paper published in the journal Nano Letters, the team describes their new technique and how the coated materials they’ve created might be used in real world applications. Researchers combine graphene and copper in hopes of shrinking electronics Plastics are not very good conductors of heat—they are generally in the 0.15–0.24 W/mK range—which is a good trait when it’s produced as flakes and used as a stuffing inside a winter coat, but not so good when used in electronics that generally need to convey heat away from a source. Engineers would like to use them in more applications however, due to their very low cost, light weight and durability. Conversely, graphene is an excellent conductor of heat (in the 2000–5000 W/mK range) along with its other unique properties, though notably a lot of that improvement is lost when applied to a substrate—it’s still much better than plastic though. In this new effort the researchers sought to improve heat conduction in a plastic by applying graphene to its surface.The type of plastic used, PET, is very common—it’s used to make soda bottles and a myriad of other products in a nearly limitless variety of shapes. Graphene for the experiment was grown in sheets just a few microns thick and then applied to a thin sheet of PET. The heat conductance (along the surface) of the resultant material was tested using a non-contact optothermal Raman technique where the researchers found the conductance had been increased by approximately 600 times.The researchers suggest the graphene coated PET could be used in thermal management applications or thermal lighting or even inside electronic devices to help move heat away from heat generating chips.The team next plans to work on creating models that have more detail and which are based on multiscale simulations that will shed light on which sorts of real-world applications the coated plastics might best be used in. Explore further Citation: Researchers improve thermal conductivity of common plastic by adding graphene coating (2014, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-thermal-common-plastic-adding-graphene.html , Nano Letters © 2014 Phys.org Journal information: arXiv More information: Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Laminate, Nano Lett., 2014, 14 (9), pp 5155–5161. DOI: 10.1021/nl501996v . On Arxiv: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1407/1407.1359.pdfAbstractWe have investigated thermal conductivity of graphene laminate films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Two types of graphene laminate were studied, as deposited and compressed, in order to determine the physical parameters affecting the heat conduction the most. The measurements were performed using the optothermal Raman technique and a set of suspended samples with the graphene laminate thickness from 9 to 44 μm. The thermal conductivity of graphene laminate was found to be in the range from 40 to 90 W/mK at room temperature. It was found unexpectedly that the average size and the alignment of graphene flakes are more important parameters defining the heat conduction than the mass density of the graphene laminate. The thermal conductivity scales up linearly with the average graphene flake size in both uncompressed and compressed laminates. The compressed laminates have higher thermal conductivity for the same average flake size owing to better flake alignment. Coating plastic materials with thin graphene laminate films that have up to 600× higher thermal conductivity than plastics may have important practical implications. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
As Ueno notes, one of the most basic principles underlying semiconductor devices is the band gap—which is a measure of the energy needed to excite a material enough to make it conduct electricity. Much work has been done over the years to control the band gap in inorganic (non-carbon based) materials such as gallium, arsenide and of course silicon, by creating different alloys and putting them together in different ways to allow for tuning—success in this area meant that many different types of semiconductor based devices could be created. In recent years researchers have looked more and more at applying similar techniques to organic semiconductors, which as their name implies are semiconductors made from materials that are carbon based. Holding up such work has been an inability to find a way around the strong localization of the electronic states in them. In this new effort, the researchers report that they have developed a means at long last for engineering organic semiconductors.The new approach involved taking note of the influence of Coulomb interactions (interactions that occur between electrically charged particles) which up to now, the team points out, have been mostly ignored by other researchers attempting to control band gaps in organic semiconductors. They found that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors could be tuned continuously over a large number of options by mixing them with their halogenated derivatives. In addition they showed that the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells could be tuned on a continuous basis by mixing the ratio of the donors.As Ueno notes, this new technique could very well lead to the development of a whole new kind of device architecture—one that is able to take advantage of the ability to engineer the band gap in organic devices. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Switzerland has shown that band structure engineering is possible when designing organic semiconductors. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes a technique that involves long-range Coulomb interactions that are loosely bound by van der Walls forces. Nobuo Ueno with Chiba University, in Japan offers a deeper look at the work done by the team in a Perspective commentary in the same journal issue. Molecular structural properties of (halogenated) ZnPc and SubPc. Credit: (c) Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0590 Organic semiconductors will create cheaper, greener devices More information: M. Schwarze et al. Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0590AbstractA key breakthrough in modern electronics was the introduction of band structure engineering, the design of almost arbitrary electronic potential structures by alloying different semiconductors to continuously tune the band gap and band-edge energies. Implementation of this approach in organic semiconductors has been hindered by strong localization of the electronic states in these materials. We show that the influence of so far largely ignored long-range Coulomb interactions provides a workaround. Photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors can be continuously tuned over a wide range by blending them with their halogenated derivatives. Correspondingly, the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells can be continuously tuned by the blending ratio of these donors. © 2016 Tech Xplore Explore further Journal information: Science Citation: Study shows band structure engineering is possible with organic semiconductors (2016, June 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-06-band-semiconductors.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—A pair of researchers at University College London has found evidence suggesting that fear of crime is contagious. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Rafael Prieto Curiel and Steven Bishop describe the model they built, how it works and what it showed. Citation: Model suggests fear of crime is contagious (2017, July 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-crime-contagious.html © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Rafael Prieto Curiel et al. Modelling the fear of crime, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science (2017). DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2017.0156AbstractHow secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security. Explore further Fear of crime or anxiety about a rapidly changing society? Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society A Credit: CC0 Public Domain Fear of crime is a concern for people who live in areas where they worry about falling prey to a criminal act, but according to Prieto Curiel and Bishop, the amount people worry may not be warranted. This, they contend, is because people can be influenced in their social interactions. If someone living in a relatively safe area speaks with someone from a high-crime area, they suggest, the person from the safe area can experience increased fear of crime. The researchers came to this conclusion by building a mathematically based computer model.The model was based on a simulated city with a population of 100,000. Three groups were created to represent three parts of the virtual city: those that were immune from crime, those that lived in a safe part of the city, and those that lived in a crime-ridden part of the city. Each virtual person was given attributes meant to mimic actual human behavior under certain conditions, one of which was a number representing their level of fear of crime. The model ran for a virtual six-year period as the researchers tinkered with events, such as occasions when people in the model interacted with one another—some of the virtual people even became victims of virtual crimes. The passage of time also allowed impacted fear levels—an absence of crime, for example, caused levels to fall.The researchers report that the virtual people living in the safe parts of the city felt safer, quite naturally, than did those living in the high-crime areas. But that quickly changed if an individual was the victim of a crime, or if they talked about crime with someone from the crime-ridden area. The latter, the researchers note, suggests that fear of crime is contagious. People can find themselves fearing crime more than they need to just by talking to people who live in higher crime rate areas. Sadly, things did not appear to work in reverse—the people from the high-crime areas did not walk away from such interactions with lower fear levels.
Citation: ‘Egg-based electronics’ offer surprisingly good electrical performance (2017, September 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-09-egg-based-electronics-surprisingly-good-electrical.html Journal information: Nanotechnology The researchers, led by Qunliang Song at Southwest University, China, have published a paper on using hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen for resistive switching memory in a recent issue of Nanotechnology.”As a promising alternative to the conventional silicon-based nonvolatile memory, the egg albumen has more advantages than other materials,” Song told Phys.org. “The bio-organic material egg albumen may have potential applications in the imitation of biological memory behavior, artificial intelligence, and brain-like intelligence because of the good compatibility.”This is not the first time that egg albumen has been incorporated into electronic devices. Previously, the albumen from chicken and duck eggs has been used in transistors and other devices as the dielectric (insulating) layer. However, the new work marks the first time that egg albumen has been used to make resistive memories. These memories are being developed as a next-generation alternative to the silicon-based memories that dominate today’s electronics. Resistive memories, which operate based on changes in resistance rather than electric current, have potential advantages such as higher speeds, higher densities, and smaller sizes.One of the main components of resistive memories is a dielectric film—here, the egg albumen-based film—which is normally insulating but can be made conducting by applying a voltage. Switching between these states of high and low electrical resistance corresponds to switching between the memory’s “off” and “on” states, respectively.The researchers demonstrated that the resistance of egg albumen material can be made switchable by mixing it with a 10% hydrogen peroxide solution. Egg albumen contains more than 40 different proteins that are linked together by weak chemical bonds. Deep inside these proteins are large numbers of iron, sodium, and potassium ions. The hydrogen peroxide easily breaks the bonds holding the proteins together, which denatures the proteins and, critically, exposes the ions. These ions, which are positively charged, then act as traps that capture negatively charged electrons that are injected when a voltage is applied. When the trap levels are low (few or no electrons), the dielectric material behaves as an insulator and the memory is in the “off” state. When a negative voltage is applied, it causes the traps to fill with electrons, the material becomes conducting, and the memory switches to its “on” state. To reset the memory, a positive voltage is applied, releasing the electrons from the traps and returning the memory to its “off” state.”Ions such as Fe3+, Na+ and K+ are always connected with protein chains in the chicken egg albumen, and so cannot work efficiently when charges are injected,” Song said. “Treated with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution, the ions can be exposed outside of the protein chains and act as the traps to capture the injected charges. Thus the resistive switching memory properties of the hydrogen peroxide-modified egg albumen film was efficiently improved compared to those of pristine egg albumen.”Overall, the researchers demonstrated that the egg-albumen-based resistive memory compares favorably to other memories, exhibiting a high on/off resistance ratio, as well as good retention and switching endurance even after repeated bending. “Although great progress and breakthroughs have been made regarding the new material’s application and structure design, the mechanism of resistive switching memory is still not completely clear,” Song said. “We will continue our investigation of the mechanism of resistive switching memory. At the same time, flexible, wearable and water-dissolution resistive switching memory cells will be developed using organic-modified egg albumen in our following work.” Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Guangdong Zhou et al. “Hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen for transparent and flexible resistive switching memory.” Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8397 (Left) Chicken eggs consisting of albumen and yolk. (Right) The transparent and flexible memory cells fabricated by the hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen. Credit: Zhou et al. ©2017 IOP Publishing (Phys.org)—Egg white—also known as egg albumen—is not only good-tasting, it also has very good dielectric properties, along with a high transparency and high elasticity, that make it a promising material for fabricating transparent, flexible electronic devices. In a new study, researchers have shown that, when egg albumen is mixed with hydrogen peroxide, a series of chemical reactions occurs that transforms the biomaterial into an active film that can be used to make transparent, flexible resistive memory devices. Which structure has optimal resistive switching characteristics? © 2017 Phys.org
Daniel Vettori became the first New Zealand bowler to take 300 one-day international wickets as the Black Caps made short work of Afghanistan to remain unbeaten after five World Cup matches on Sunday. Left-arm spinner Vettori scythed through the Afghanistan top order, using his guile on a pitch producing no turn, to finish with the remarkable figures of four for 18 in 10 overs as Afghanistan were dismissed for 186. Along the way he became the 12th player, and only the fifth spinner, to take 300 ODI wickets. Also Read – Khel Ratna for Deepa and Bajrang, Arjuna for JadejaOn a run-laden McLean Park pitch in Napier, New Zealand needed only 36.1 overs to overhaul Afghanistan’s total. New Zealand, who had already qualified for the quarter-finals, have yet to be taken the distance in the field and the 47.4 overs bowled to Afghanistan is the most they have sent down in any match in the tournament. But the result was never in doubt when Brendon McCullum, with his trademark aggressive approach, blazed away at the top of the New Zealand innings slamming 42 off 19 deliveries to get the chase off to a rollicking start. Also Read – Endeavour is to facilitate smooth transition: ShastriWhen he was bowled by Mohammad Nabi, trying to belt his opposing captain out of the ground, New Zealand were already a quarter of the way to their target after fewer than six overs. The pace slowed from nine to 5.19 runs an over after McCullum’s dismissal as New Zealand coasted to victory with their middle-to-lower order not getting the lengthy time at the crease they wanted before the knockout phase.Kane Williamson, in his understated manner, contributed 33, Martin Guptill reached 57, his highest score of the campaign, and Grant Elliott made 19. Guptill and Elliott were both needlessly run out when time and runs were not an issue, leaving Ross Taylor (24 not out) and Corey Anderson (seven not out) to see New Zealand home. It wasn’t easy for Afghanistan who were already jet-lagged having crossed the Tasman Sea twice in the week to meet their gruelling World Cup schedule ahead of this game.BRIEFSCORES NZL 188/4 (Guptill 57, McCullum 42) beat AFG 186 (Najibullah 56, Vettori 4-18, Boult 3-34) by six wickets.